A Little Culture… Learning Cambodian Dance Hand Gestures

Last updated on March 26, 2023

One day I sat chatting with the children at the orphanage I volunteered at last year in Cambodia and I stuttered into a shocked silence as they casually stretched their fingers backwards—their fingers dipping so far back over the top of their hands with pressure that the tips could actually touch their arms.

I had been at the orphanage for several days by that point, but as I acclimated to the surroundings and developed a pace and routine I hadn’t (apparently) paid attention to the casual stretches that made up a strong part of nearly every child’s life if they had decided to study traditional Khmer dancing.

Just as I used to practice my Irish dance steps under the chairs during lectures in class, these kids took any opportunity to stretch their fingers and further a process that takes years—the methodical warping of their hands that will enable them to skillfully execute the intricate hand movements and gestures inherent to Khmer Apsara dancing—Cambodia’s primary cultural dance. This dancing is on display as tourist-centric shows at the pubs in Siem Reap, but beyond that, these dance gestures and hand movements are also a very prominent part of Cambodia’s heritage—one that is gorgeous to watch and actually quite unique from some of the related dance styles in Thailand.

Cambodian Dancer Children showing hand gestures
Cambodian dancers stretch and practice the hand gestures needed to perfect the art of Cambodian dance. They start stretching their hands and body young to ensure they can maintain the flexibility to execute the intricate Apsara dances.

What is Khmer Apsara Dancing?

Khmer Apsara dancing is classical Cambodian ballet form deeply rooted in tradition and Cambodian culture. It is a prominent part of the most important periods in the history of the Kingdom of Cambodia, and remains important to the Cambodian people today, despite the Khmer Rouge’s efforts to stamp it out in the 70s.

Apsara dancing dates back to the 7th century, evidenced by carvings at the ancient Sambor Prei Kuk temples. During the time Angkor Wat was in its full glory in the 12th century, the court of King Jayavarman VII had over 3,000 Apsara dancers to entertain and delight. So revered is Apsara dancing that you can see the delicate hand gestures and dancing Apsaras figures etched into many reliefs throughout the most interesting temples in the Angkor Wat complex.

Apsaras are stunningly beautiful celestial dancing spirits that travel from heaven to Earth, bestowing their enchanting gifts on kings and gods alike. The hallmarks of modern dance shows include: elaborate silk outfits, magnificent headdresses, and intricate gold jewelry. The costumes are brightly colored and elegant, and dancers will change costumes many times during a show to better tell the detailed stories.

UNESCO has named Khmer Apsara dancing a “Masterpiece of Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity,” and it truly is a unique type of dance unlike anything else in the world. Apsara dance contains elements of Hindu and Buddhist mythologies, but it’s completely unique.

Why is Apsara Dance Important?

Apsara is a term used to refer to female celestial spirits in Hindu and Buddhist mythology in Cambodia and other parts of Southeast Asia. In Cambodian culture, Apsara are considered to be dancers who entertain the gods and are associated with beauty, grace, and artistic expression.

Apsara are an important part of Cambodian culture and are featured prominently in many aspects of traditional Cambodian art, including dance, music, and sculpture. They are often depicted in Khmer temples and are considered to be symbols of beauty and cultural pride.

For many Cambodian people, Apsara represents a cultural and spiritual connection to the country’s rich history and traditions. In contemporary Cambodia, Apsara dance is an important part of the country’s cultural identity and is often performed at festivals and ceremonies. As such, Apsara holds a significant place in the hearts of many Cambodian people.

How Long do Apsara Dancers Train?

Apsara dancers in Cambodia typically begin their training at a young age and spend many years practicing and perfecting their craft. According to some sources, dancers may start training as young as six years old and may continue their training for several years before becoming professional dancers.

Apsara dance is a highly stylized and technical form of dance that requires a high level of skill and precision. Dancers must learn a wide range of dance movements and techniques, including hand gestures, footwork, and facial expressions, as well as how to perform with grace and poise. In addition to technical skills, dancers must also develop physical strength and flexibility.

The exact length of time it takes to become an Apsara dancer will vary depending on the individual dancer’s natural abilities and dedication to training. Some dancers may progress more quickly than others, while others may need more time to develop their skills. In general, it is expected that dancers will spend several years training before they are considered ready to perform professionally.

Meaning of Cambodian Khmer Dance Hand Gestures

The Apsara were captivating and their spirits were said to hypnotize mortals with slow-paced, mesmerizing dance moves. More than 1,500 hand gestures exist, and Cambodian Apsara dancers learn the intricate movements, and the distinct meaning of each precise hand and figure placement.

Each unique hand gestures represents a word or element important to the Cambodian people, and elements of mythology and nature.

  • When you layer hand gestures you can make more complex thoughts and ideas. For example a simple one-handed gesture means flower, when combined with the other hand in precisely the right position it means picking a flower.
  • Then you can add position on the body to augment a hand gesture and make another meaning entirely—the same hand gesture placed near the mouth versus another could mean shyness, laughter, or swim.
  • To add even more beautiful complexity, some of the hand gestures are meant to appear in a specific order, telling a precise story used in various traditional dances. Other common ideas expressed in Apsara dances include fruit, tendril, love, sadness, and many more.

These movements and gestures are so complex, and the movements in need of such flexibility, that the best dancers must begin training as children. Hence why the young dancers—both boys and girls—spent hours each week contorting their bodies and stretching their limbs into impossible positions.

Where to See Apsara Dancing in Cambodia

Thanks to a handful of surviving dancers, Cambodian Apsara dancing—and the vast number of intricate hand gestures required—has seen a resurgence over the past 20 years. Siem Reap and Phnom Penh offer the best chances to witness this beautiful dance form. Consider in Angkor Village Apsara Theatre Siem Reap (where I took many of the photos above), or Cambodian Living Arts in Phnom Penh. I also highly recommend attending a Phare circus show. These shows are an incredible combination of dance, history, circus skills, and artistry. Beyond exactly where to see it, here’s how to find Cambodian Apsara dancing:

  1. Apsara Dance Shows: Apsara dance shows are a popular tourist attraction in both Phnom Penh and Siem Reap, and there are several venues that offer regular performances. Some popular options include the Apsara Theatre in Siem Reap and the Cambodian Cultural Village in Phnom Penh.
  2. Cultural Centers: Cultural centers such as the National Museum in Phnom Penh and the Angkor National Museum in Siem Reap often host Apsara dance performances as part of their cultural programming.
  3. Festivals and Events: Apsara dance is often featured at festivals and special events in both Phnom Penh and Siem Reap. Keep an eye out for announcements of upcoming events or festivals in the area that might feature Cambodian dance performances.
  4. Private Lessons: If you’re interested in learning Apsara dance yourself, you may be able to find private lessons with local instructors in either city. This can be a great way to experience the dance up close and learn more about the art form.

So I dare you, try it out and see how far you can get your fingers to bend on their own and then using your other hand!?! How’d ya do?

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14 thoughts on “A Little Culture… Learning Cambodian Dance Hand Gestures”

  1. Wow … and ouch! I can't believe how far they can bend their hands back without forcing them back with pressure. Impressive.

  2. Like most others, tried and didn’t even come close! Something to strive for :)

    Hit up yoga class this morning and after 11 months on the road with minimal yoga, I am lucky to do a mini backbend—on a good day!


    • Definitely something you'd have to be working on…like you, I wasn't even
      close on the fingers or wrist!

      I also just have that huge sighing moment when I get back into yoga after
      ages of moving around too fast to get in any practice!

    • Thanks – I think it most surprised me that they had gotten their hands that
      flexible so young! Hugs right back! :-)

  3. Wow. Not even close! I have very inflexible wrists methinks. I love the Apsara dancing — all throughout the region, really. Up in Laos too!

    • I never managed to catch the dancing in Laos, but loved what I saw in
      Cambodia – the expressions through the hands is just phenomenal. Oh! And I
      also don't get far with the bending…I broke my wrist a few years go so
      it's not so flexible!

  4. Shannon, this photo makes me wince! There was a girl at my school from Cambodia who could do it, and I couldn't bare to look at her hands. It still freaks me out to this day!

  5. Wow, this is something I totally missed in Cambodia, what dedication these kids have! That's quite a skill.

    Holding my wrist flat in line with my forearm I can move them up about 50 degrees, but I can't bend them at all if my elbow is bent like the kids in the photo.

    • Wow! You definitely have to check out this form when you go back to SEA,
      it's in other areas in nearby countries too!


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