A Little Story … The Origins of Chocolate and Effects of Grassroots Tourism

A cacao fruit hanging from a tree at Silico Creek, Panama.

A cacao fruit hanging from a tree at Silico Creek, Panama.

Rain pelted darts of moisture into my skin as we stumbled off the bus into a huddle of quizzical faces. Their complete bafflement signaled a slice of doubt in my mind as the bus handler hurled our luggage under the shelter and sped down the road, leaving Ana, my dad, and me at mile marker 25: Silico Creek.

Barely on the maps, Silico Creek is a blip on the tourist radar between Bocas del Toro and Boquete, but my dad discovered this indigenous community in his research and decided we three would kick off our Panama adventure learning about the origins of chocolate through Urari, a small rural tourism organization at Silico Creek, which lies within the Ngöbe Buglé Conmarca, a demarcated area similar in function to the Native American reservations in the US.

From the start, our adventure echoed of the coffee journey Ana and I visited in rural Thailand to learn about fair-trade, sustainable coffee production. If there is one thing I love more than coffee, it’d be chocolate, so this journey with my dad and Ana would round out my understanding of two of the world’s biggest food commodities. Like coffee, eco-tourism circles bandy about buzz-ish words like “local,” “organic,” and “fair-trade.” A trip to the designer chocolate aisle at the grocery store is a veritable test of each company’s ability to find marketable synonyms of these words. But I wanted to know the human story behind the chocolate and Urari’s small tourism organization, self-started and run entirely by the community, seemed like the perfect place to delve into my two great loves: supporting social enterprises and consuming chocolate.

In short, our weekend held promise and we were all intrigued by the chance to live within the community … but first, I had to find the place.

I hesitantly questioned the group in Spanish, and big smiles bloomed on their faces as they gave encouraging gestures toward the gravel path behind us, nodding as we set off into the drizzling rain.

Two hours later, we had settled into our modest wooden hilltop bungalows, consumed hot chocolate, and found ourselves surrounded by members of the community—everyone asking and answering questions in tandem.

Sunrise from Urari's bungalows at Silico Creek, Panama.

The rain cleared for part of our stay and our first sunrise welcomed a gorgeous, crisp day of blue skies and chirping birds.

About the Silico Creek Community

A gorgeous and bright morning for our waterfall hike from Silico Creek, Panama.

Modest wooden houses line the hilltops with gorgeous views all the way to the Caribbean Sea.

Right away, our biggest hurdle was language … only a few members of the community speak basic English, so as the guides and members of the community learned that each of us had varying levels of Spanish, mine being passable to communicate, we defaulted to Spanish and spent three days in full immersion, with me acting as translator for Ana and my dad.

Immediately digging into the immersion, we learned of the community’s history. Silico Creek is a settlement of indigenous people who moved to a fertile northeastern region of the Ngöbe Buglé Conmarca in the 1960s—that first family expanded and the 500-person village now includes all the children, grandchildren, and extended relatives.

Urari, I learned, is primarily set up to become the community’s home-grown solution to tourism and income. Much like reservations in the United States, the indigenous population is given land and the right to operate freely, but in contrast to reservations in the US, demarcated regions of Panama are given almost full autonomy and therefore lack government support. This was not always the case though, and after years (decades … centuries) of politics and land issues, modern tourism and the development of a thriving economy is tough for rural communities. Many indigenous peoples operate on a barter system and internal economy within the community, but the world encroaches on the edges of the reservation land, and land within the demarcation has become a commodity for the Ngöbe Buglé.

As we learned more, I related it back to my time in Thailand studying coffee. Many issues I found in coffee production Thailand are similarly present in Silico Creek’s cacao plantations. Cacao is the primary crop grown by nearly every family, but they sell their beans to a cooperative nearby that, while paying “fairly,”  does not generate enough income to support the community. In short, the current avenue for selling their cacao outside of the reservation isn’t livable wages even within their communal living system.

Hence their focus on tourism.

And in this case, it’s home-grown tourism that Ana, my dad, and I were taking part in as Silico Creek formed Urari, which operates the several tours and overnight stays for foreigners interested in learning more about the Ngöbe culture as well as organic agriculture and cacao production.

A Look at Grassroots Tourism

The largest initiative at Silico Creek of interest to outsiders is organic farming and the production of cacao—the plant at the beginning of all the world’s delicious chocolate.

We spent our first afternoon at Urari learning about the culture and people within the settlement, but as dark settled over the hilltop bungalows we were given a cheery wave as the community descended to their homes just below, navigating with cell phones as flashlights since the community does not have electricity.

And then it was an hour of the small pleasures—my dad and I talked on the our dark balcony, looking out of the moon-washed treetops and discussed the day. Ana hunkered under the mosquito net and read a book inside, at least, she read until I ousted her at top speed to see the flickering tapestry of fireflies breaking up the dark near our bungalows. Until traveling I had never seen a firefly, so I knew that was Ana’s fate as well. She and I did a lively rendition of Owl City’s “Firefly” before we all turned in for an early nights sleep.

Gorgeous rolling hills and land we trekked over for our waterfall hike from Silico Creek, Panama.

Our group making our way through the mud to the waterfalls near Silico Creek, Panama. Hiking through the mud to the waterfall near Silico Creek, Panama. Ana and me enjoying the cold waterfalls near Silico Creek after a very long and hard hike.


We woke to the chatter of birds the next morning and the smiling faces of Eduardo and his family as they laid out a full breakfast spread—traditional bread, eggs, and fruit—a meal hearty enough to get us through the strenuous waterfall hike on the docket for the day.

And boy did we earn that breakfast; the hike was muddy and fun and gave us the chance to grill Arnoldo—our guide and brother to Eduardo—about the backstory of the Ngöbe Buglé people, the community’s ultimate goal for Urari, and the impact of Panama’s varied political past.

Oh yes, and there was gorgeous untouched forest, small villages, rushing rivers, and a waterfall too.  :)

Our second day with the Silico Creek community ended as had the previous day, many members of the community came to our hilltop bungalows to visit and answer questions (and to look at us, Ana was a minor celebrity with some of the children). Urari’s emphasis is on fostering a connection between the tourists and the local community and we found friends and faces always nearby to talk with us throughout the day.

A gorgeous day for the waterfall hike at Silico Creek, Panama.

The Humble Origins of Chocolate

Cocoa has a relevant importance in our people, it is used to make traditional medicines and when used during spiritual evening ceremonies it serves to purify our soul. Special consumption overnight is an ancestral practice Silico Creek.

A steady rain drummed on our wooden bungalows our last morning at Silico Creek, and the wet earth created a deep mud through which we would trek to learn about Silico Creek’s primary cash crop: cacao.

Throughout our visit, our meals included two traditional concoctions of this delicious bean—hot chocolate and chocolate coffee—and I was eager to visit the plantation and learn more about the cultural significance of cacao in the Ngöbe Buglé culture.

The plight facing Urari again reminded me of the days I spent in the Akha Ama coffee collective in Northern Thailand … it’s a tale of farming, but also one of continually striving to meet international standards, keep the crops healthy, and find a fair outlet for the commodity. And while Akha Ama created a collective to directly connect their coffee to consumers, Urari sells the cacao to a cooperative, taking a small cut of the deep profits made from the global chocolate trade. Instead of relying on selling their chocolate solely through the cooperative, which they have done since the 1950s, the families of Silico Creek plan to grow their tourism project and create a direct connection to tourists.

Ripening cacao hulked from the tree branches on one of the cacao plantations at Silico Creek, Panama.

We slogged through the dense overgrowth in our borrowed rain boots and dodged the heavy cacao fruit hanging low from the trees. Arnoldo was our guide again, as well as the local farmer whose farm we were visiting. Between the two men, we learned the history of the crop and the core processes and challenges of growing cacao; we even tasted the ripe cacao fruit—syrupy sweet like candy.

From there we walked back to the village and found shelter in the home of a woman who processes chocolate throughout the day. Most of the community’s adults, children, and artisans collectively run Urari, and 75 percent of the Silico Creek families are directly involved in producing and processing chocolate.

Our guides led us through the roasting process, grinding the beans, and finally a taste of the freshly pressed cacao—nose-flinchingly bitter. That liquid is then packed into bars and sold to tourists; anything not sold directly to visitors is instead sold to the nearby cooperative. This is Urari’s long-term goal, to diversify their chocolate products for direct sale to tourists while maintaining their high-quality organic chocolate. (We bought two bars and I hope to make a raw cacao dessert in the next few weeks!)

Raw cacao seeds

pressing cacao into chocolate

Tasting raw cacao

The Realities of Sustainable Tourism

I often talk about the benefits of local-level tourism, of supporting the communities working to support themselves and this is one of the clearest illustrations I have of the concept. And for that, I love Urari. But my threshold for basic is different from the average tourist because of my years on the road. Those three days at Urari were really my dad’s first venture into rural tourism, so I looked to his reactions with interest. Silico Creek hopes to continue expanding their initiative, and they are in the early stages. Right now school groups come en masse several times a year to study agriculture and farming, but the casual tourism from guidebooks and word of mouth is still in the early stages.

The basic wooden bungalows provided by Urari at Silico Creek, Panama. A delicious lunch of coconut rice, fresh avocado, and hearts of palm (and chicken for the meat eaters).

And to an extent, you can tell. Western amenities are on the basic end. The outdoor bathrooms are spotless, but there is no electricity, mosquito nets adorn the beds, and you basically drop off the face of the earth while you’re staying at Urari—meals and activities are all arranged through the community and there is no easy access to the nearby towns.

Full immersion.

And it was great. My dad loved the three days. Although he was very glad for the hot shower in Boquete once we left, he loved having such direct access to the locals—a clear venue to ask questions and investigate his curiosity. This is what I have long loved about local-level travel and it was a success with all three generations of us on this trip—my niece (12 years old), me (29), and my dad (late 50s).

Our group takes a photo all together.

The three of us and our guides for the three days!

In stepping off the path a bit, comes the insights, stories and interactions that shape my most prominent travel memories. In addition to meeting locals at the markets, and striking up conversations with strangers in parks, it’s often by finding sustainable enterprises that I am able to meet people and learn their story. I travel with a specific interest in social enterprise and non-profit work, and by seeking out these conversations I find the other side of the tourist track.

And for those with just a week or two in a region, grassroots initiatives run by locals allow locals to invite tourists into their communities on their terms and share their cultural, language, and customs. Sometimes travel to indigenous communities borders on zoo-like experiences (notably the Karen in Northern Thailand), but the face of modern tourism does not have to look like that. In fact, helping it not look like that is one of my missions throughout my travels and I strongly believe the interactions from grassroots, local-level travel had the strongest effect on shaping my own ethics and perspective.

I asked the community the best way they would like support; Arcadio, one of the brothers noted:

Come meet Ngobe Bugle, our culture, and see the importance of growing cacao organically. Visit the surrounding nature and tranquility to enjoy the company of a large family in rural area.

Through three days of full immersion I found new friendships, connected on a personal level with a culture so different from my own, and I did it on terms set by the people directly affected by my tourism—the families that make up Silico Creek, Panama. And that, well, that’s the heart of why I love social enterprise.

A thanks to Mariane from AIME, a French organization working with Silico Creek to amplify and support their grassroots projects; she clarified many of the smaller details about the community, culture, and organization that I lost in translation. And a fond thanks and warm thoughts to all the members of the Aguilar family who opened their homes and allowed us a glimpse into their lives and their culture. 

Quick Tips: Visiting Silico Creek

Where: On the road between David and Changinola at kilometer 25. Full directions on their site; they would be best visited in conjunction with a Bocas del Toro trip as they are in that region, within the Ngöbe Buglé conmarca.
When: Urari is open to tourism throughout the year, though they have limited capacity to house tourists if a school group is in residence. We were there in June, which is off-season because of the rains, but that did not ruin the adventure by any means. Book via email ahead of time and they will arrange your stay, prepare for the activities you want (waterfall hike, cacao tour, cultural dance, farm-stay, etc).  We arrived five hours before they expected us, so of note is that they will try to meet you at the bus stop if you tell them of your arrival time.
Why: Urari represents Silico Creek’s self-started initiative to create opportunities and revenue to sustain their community. Grassroots, sustainable projects are a passion of mine and all three of us loved the chance to immerse in the culture, ask questions, and learn more about the people while funneling money directly to the people.
Tips: The accommodations are basic but very clean wooden bungalows, the bulk of the reservation does not have electricity (there is a small solar-powered station I heard about but never saw, so don’t count on using it). Bring flashlights, mosquito repellant, warm clothes, rain gear in the off-season, and a sense of adventure. Only a bit of English is spoken at Silico Creek (the man on the other side of the email address speaks fluent English), so you should have at least basic Spanish language skills.

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31 Responses to A Little Story … The Origins of Chocolate and Effects of Grassroots Tourism

  1. Its Not Ya Boi Adam October 2, 2014 at 11:37 am #

    P.S.S Im Not Adam
    p.s.s.s i like tacos

  2. YaBoiAdam October 2, 2014 at 11:33 am #

    That was very neat hearing about you making the freshly pressed cacao. I enjoy hearing more about your trip! Safe Journeys!!

    P.S. AJ still doesn’t like tacos!!!

  3. Susan April 22, 2014 at 3:59 pm #

    We visited the Silico Creek community yesterday on our way back to Boquete from Bocas. The ngobe community is located at KM 25 right off the road. There is a small shop selling locally made craft items. We were led through the village to Dalia’s house where we met her father, Quan. He explained the process of growing, fermenting and drying cacao and then Dalia demonstrated the roasting process over a wood burning stove, then she ground the seeds and we bought some of the cacao paste still warm from the process. It was totally awesome to witness the communities’ enterprise and get to interact with the ngobe villagers. They were very happy to share with us. We only took the tour and did not spent the night. I made some chocolate bread with the cacao which was delicious. Stop in and visit the community. It is well worth it!

    • Shannon O'Donnell April 23, 2014 at 2:35 am #

      Thank you so much for sharing your experience there Susan! The cacao is delicious and we brought some back as well — making bread with it is a great idea. :)

  4. Corinne Vail October 11, 2013 at 11:42 am #

    Loved this article. Panama is on my list, and now I can add Silico to the itinerary. It sounds like you had a wonderful time and got to know the people. That is surely the best way.

    • Shannon O'Donnell October 12, 2013 at 12:34 pm #

      If you make it to Silico Creek I would love to hear about it! It was a really neat addition to the other more traditional places we visited in Panama (Boquete, the Locks, etc.). Safe travels Corinne :)

  5. Tess Dayo October 10, 2013 at 4:32 pm #

    For the love of organic chocolate and everything cacao , I enjoyed reading the stories about Silico Creek. I recently went to Honduras and visited Carambola Botanical Gardens in Mahogany bay, Isla Roatan and the owner just happened to be from North Carolina. He was very passionate in teaching us about the ‘chocolate’ tree and the super fruits that are widely cultivated by locals in Honduras but due to lack of time, we didn’t get a detailed experience as you described above. One of our shared concerns was that local tourism isn’t as well promoted to average travelers who have little resources in regards to how to go about it. Thank you for writing this peace and I’m looking forward to learning more about grassroots travels and fair trade organizations globally.

    • Shannon O'Donnell October 12, 2013 at 12:33 pm #

      So glad the post resonated with you Tess, I really think there is such an opportunity to connect travelers to these small, grassroots organizations. It creates such a neat experience to find the cacao farms and the local enterprises to support in a new place. Like you, all things chocolate are good in my book so I loved the visit to Silico Creek! Thanks for sharing your experiences, I look forward to connecting soon! :)

  6. zeenat October 8, 2013 at 4:08 pm #

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  7. Lunaguava September 24, 2013 at 8:15 pm #

    Ah, the grinding machine! We recently did a chocolate workshop in San Cristóbal de las Casas, Mexico, and I had to tackle one of those beauties. I looked like an overeager idiot (it’s supposed to be a gentle procedure, not a race to the finish line), but at least we made a ridiculous video out of it. Although a lot of fun, it does not compare to your brilliant experience in Silico Creek. As you wrote, “In stepping off the path a bit, comes the insights, stories and interactions that shape my most prominent travel memories.” I absolutely agree and relate, and the more I travel the more that sentiment holds true. Thank you for a fantastic read and for putting Urari on our radar. When we eventually make it to Panama (maybe I should start writing if…), we’ll be sure to pay a visit. Safe and happy trails!

    • Shannon O'Donnell September 26, 2013 at 1:41 pm #

      I have done the same when weilding the grinder — they’re always doing the “calm, slow down” gesture to me when it’s my go. :) So glad you got to see the chocolate process as well — did you try the bitter liquid cacao, nothing like the sweet chocolate I so love!

  8. Time Travel Plans September 13, 2013 at 5:47 pm #

    A very interesting read, Shannon. I just wrote a post on my blog about the Choco Museo which has locations throughout Central and South America and how they’re committed to producing artisanal chocolate in countries where cacao grows. We took part in a chocolate making workshop at their Nicaragua location, and I so wish that we had a grinding machine like the ones in your pictures. Instead we used the good ‘ole mortar and pestle which is hard work! The Choco Museo also offers tours and stays at local cacao farms, but unfortunately we didn’t have the time to visit one. I love reading about grassroots tourism and I’m taking more strides to engage in sustainable travels in my future journeys. It’s also great to read posts about Panama as I lived there for several years as a child.

    • Shannon O'Donnell September 13, 2013 at 8:03 pm #

      The museo sounds like an excellent place to start moving into learning about the crop and the people it effects. As frequent and long-term travelers, the grassroots travel is a work in progress and something I like to hunt down and find as often as possible — though many great memories come from just happening upon the local projects too, as you well know! Really neat that you lived in Panama some growing up, what a wonderful connection to the country :)

  9. Theboywander September 12, 2013 at 4:30 am #

    This looks absolutely incredible and is exactly the type of travel I want to do. I can only imagine how that chocolate tastes.

    • Shannon O'Donnell September 12, 2013 at 10:29 am #

      It was delicious! And if there’s ever any way I can help when you’re on the road just let me know — finding these types of social enterprises is one of my passions! :)

  10. Cassie September 6, 2013 at 4:47 pm #

    Wonderful story, Shannon! It’s an interesting point about the limited power of fair trade cooperatives. It’s a start but still can’t provide all the revenue a community needs to grow their economy. Great you took the opportunity to take part in their homestay program. I’m going to start looking for opportunities like that when I travel. And kudos to your dad for finding this place AND for being so adventurous! :)

  11. Lisa September 5, 2013 at 3:49 pm #

    Incredible piece – thanks for sharing!

  12. Sky Fisher September 3, 2013 at 8:05 pm #

    This is so incredible. I wish that I had taken the time to visit when I was in Boquete – I heard about the conmarca but we never visited and I (regretably) never took the time to learn about the Ngöbe Buglé. I’m hoping to head back to Boquete soon, though, and I would love to learn more about this grassroots effort so hopefully I will be able to visit.

    • Shannon O'Donnell September 3, 2013 at 9:44 pm #

      It’s a really neat way to spend a couple days near the area but far from the buzz of Bocas del Toro. Let me know if you make it there and enjoy the region. Like you, I would love to make it back to Boquete soon! :)

  13. fred mucai September 3, 2013 at 9:30 am #

    This is a very informative article and a good glimpse at a culture that is using bootstrap effort.

    • Shannon O'Donnell September 3, 2013 at 9:45 pm #

      Thank you Fred — it’s neat to find ways to connect at this level with smaller projects in various countries. :)

  14. Amanda McInerney September 1, 2013 at 7:07 pm #

    Thanks for such a great read and an insight into a community and way of life very different from that here in Australia. It is great to see these communities taking proactive steps to take charge of their future – and the chocolate was an added bonus!

    • Shannon O'Donnell September 2, 2013 at 7:56 pm #

      The chocolate was definitely a fun addition to our trip, and I know my niece appreciated having a legitimate reason to drink hot chocolate each evening! I really appreciate you reading and sharing the piece on Twitter! :)

  15. Claire @ Vegetating Earth August 28, 2013 at 12:37 pm #

    Excellent post on grassroots tourism. And I just checked your book out from my local library; I’m excited to read it!

    • Shannon O'Donnell August 28, 2013 at 1:13 pm #

      Thanks Claire! So happy it was at your local library, and I would love to know your thoughts or questions once you’ve read it!

  16. Jo - Over the Edge of the Wild August 27, 2013 at 5:33 am #

    After only 10 weeks on the road (and it didn’t take all of them to work it out), I know that I almost always feel disappointed with tourist-tours. It’s the chances to meet people going about their real lives and doing their real jobs that are the most interesting and memorable, so I will have to focus really hard on trying to find more.

    • Shannon O'Donnell August 27, 2013 at 10:55 am #

      Agreed Jo! Though there are times I do traditional tours, it’s really the one-on-one experiences that leave a lasting impression on me and have shifted my perspective in profound ways. Safe travels and good luck hunting down some more experiences!

  17. Jacquie Mathers @ MFW August 26, 2013 at 4:53 pm #

    This is incredible! Thoroughly enjoyed the read, reminds me to dig deeper into rural tourism. x

    • Shannon O'Donnell August 26, 2013 at 6:37 pm #

      Thanks Jacquie, it has its highs and lows, but I love the chance to delve into aspects of a country that are under the surface! :)